New FSA rules from the IRS: Some Considerations

This past week, the IRS has provided two notices (IRS Notice 2020-29 and IRS Notice 2020-33) related to health flexible spending accounts and dependent care flexible spending account plans, commonly referred to as health FSAs and DCAP plans. Many employers and employees have been hoping for, or even expecting this type of guidance, which was a relaxation of strict IRS rules related to health FSA and DCAP plans.  

Given the current COVID-19 public health emergency, childcare facilities have been shut down for a period of time nationwide. Elective surgeries have been deferred and for some people, may not be rescheduled this year. This means that money employees have set aside in DCAP or health FSA accounts may not be needed this year. Unlike other employee healthcare-related accounts, such as health savings accounts (HSAs), funds deferred into health FSAs and DCAPs have limited rollover capabilities. This new guidance from the IRS is a welcome effort to offer flexibility to these programs and it certainly makes sense in this unprecedented time.

A summary of specific changes can be found here.

However, as an employer, there are a couple of things you should keep in mind.

New FSA rules from the IRS

Communication Plan

If you have a DCAP and/or a Health FSA, and you choose to implement these flexible options for 2020 you will want to take some action to notify your employees. Because these changes can have a significant financial impact on your employees during this unusual time, you may want to consider putting some extra efforts toward educating your employees as to their specific new options. You should also expect to work with your FSA and DCAP administrator(s), if applicable, to coordinate upcoming changes and necessary file feeds.  This may be as simple as an email and you may be able to rely on your vendors or broker/consultant to draft communications.

Depending on the needs of your employees, you may feel a more robust communication plan is required. If that is the case, please reach out to the contact below or your Findley consultant and they can help.

Effects on Non-discrimination testing

In general, employers who sponsor DCAP and Healthcare FSA plans are subject to Cafeteria plan non-discrimination testing under IRS Code section 125.  DCAPs are additionally subject to DCAP plan testing under IRS Code section 129. Employers should know that the IRS notices do not suspend non-discrimination testing for the 2020 plan year and employers should be mindful that they still must pass applicable non-discrimination tests in order to maintain tax-qualified benefit plans. If you have already reviewed your current plan year and have passed testing related to IRS codes section 125 and 129, you may need to revisit those tests with updated information.

Particularly for DCAP testing under IRS code section 129, passing the average benefits test can be an annual source of anxiety for some employers. Adding deferral flexibility may change a plan from passing or failing this test in a given year, depending on changes your employees elect.

If you have questions regarding the impact of additional deferral changes on your ability to pass non-discrimination testing, you should reach out to whoever handles your testing annually. This may be your FSA or DCAP administrator or a consultant.

Here at Findley, we offer this type of expertise to our clients. If you should have any questions, please reach out to the Findley consultant you normally work with or Dave Tighe at or 419.327.4194

For the actual IRS notices click here

Published May 21, 2020

Print this article

Copyright © 2020 by Findley, Inc. All rights reserved.

Taking Public Sector Retiree Medical To The Next Level

Faced with the sobering reality of more than $1 trillion in unfunded retiree healthcare liabilities, public sector employers across the country are seeking a sustainable retiree health benefit solution. Their shift to relying on retiree health insurance exchanges will not be without challenges or concerns. One solution that is just starting to be used is to work with state legislatures and make benefit changes that allow public sector employees to convert unused sick leave into retiree health insurance credits.

Numerous plan sponsors for public sector organizations may already be using – or contemplating the use of — retiree healthcare insurance exchanges to facilitate purchase of pre-65 individual policies or Medicare supplemental benefits. As public sector employers review this option, they should consider issues that may arise if future cuts are made to retiree medical stipends. What will be the exchange-based solution?

Earlier this year, the Ohio Public Employees Retirement System (OPERS) announced that serious financial pressure will result in significant reductions in stipends for retiree health benefits. The cuts for pre-65 retirees may be as much as $400 per month and will affect retirees including police and fire department pensioners. Although the mandatory retirement age for a public safety officer may be 65, many police officers and firefighters retire well ahead of Medicare entitlement, because of health status and long service.

According to a January 16, 2020 article, the changes will reduce OPERS unfunded healthcare liabilities from $6.2 billion to $27 million. Officials from OPERS said the $11 billion healthcare fund was set to run out of money in 11 years, but with the changes that will be implemented beginning in 2022, the fund will be solvent for 18 years.

In addition to cutting premium subsidies for retirees in 2022, healthcare coverage will no longer be provided through OPERS. Retirees will receive an OPERS subsidy to be used toward the purchase of healthcare coverage through the healthcare marketplace.

public sector employers across the country are seeking a sustainable retiree health benefit solution

Look beyond HSAs

It is evident that there is an acute need for public sector employers to accumulate funds for retiree medical benefits while the plan participant is actively employed. While Health Savings Accounts (HSAs) provide an opportunity for employees to create a nest egg, implementing a qualified high deductible health plan for collectively bargained public sector groups remains a challenge. In addition, these high deductible plans are not immune to problematic healthcare trends, including how high cost specialty drugs can ravage an employer’s (and employee’s) health benefits budget.

An alternative to an HSA, Health Reimbursement Accounts (HRAs) do not need to be paired with a high deductible plan, but the employer contributions are typically modest and easily consumed by out-of-pocket medical, prescription drug, dental and vision expenses. For instance, according to Mercer’s 2018 National Survey of Employer Sponsored Health Plans, the median HRA annual contribution for those with single coverage was just $625.

A better mechanism is needed to establish funds for public sector retiree medical benefits – and the states of New York and Wisconsin may be on the right track. New York’s policy allows eligible state employees to cover some retiree health insurance costs with unused sick leave, while in Wisconsin, the Accumulated Sick Leave Credit Conversion Program allows state employees covered by the State Group Health Insurance Program to convert unused sick leave into credits to pay for health insurance when they retire. The credits cannot earn interest or be used to pay for insurance that is not part of the State Group Health Insurance Program.

Since most employers, public sector and private, are interested in reducing health care liabilities and not subsidizing retirees under their active employee health benefits plan, the Wisconsin approach – with some important tweaks — is an intriguing solution that should be considered in other states.

Retiree medical’s future: Sick leave conversion, HRAs and marketplace options?

First, the decision to convert unused sick leave into health insurance credits should be left to each retiring employee without triggering a taxable event. In 2005, the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) issued Revenue Ruling 2005-24 that allowed employers to use sick leave and vacation conversion programs to fund an HRA, as long as the employees did not have the option to take these converted amounts in cash. Then, in 2007, the IRS issued a Private Letter Ruling (PLR 200708006) indicating the sick leave and vacation conversion arrangement did not result in taxable income if the employer mandates what unused amounts would be converted to cash, contributed to the HRA, or used to pay other benefits.

In other words, the employee has no say in any of these important decisions.

Second, the retiree should not be forced into remaining in their former employer’s group health plan. They should have the ability to shop the insurance marketplace for a plan and medical provider network that meets their needs.

Third, the retiree should be able to decide how to spend the HRA funds. Even the new Excepted Benefit HRA unveiled last year by the Trump administration (where up to $1,800/year may be contributed by the employer) does not allow the HRA to be used to pay premiums for Medicare Parts B or D; individual health insurance (except for short-term limited duration insurance); group insurance coverage (except COBRA); or Medicare supplements or Advantage plans.

Although a traditional HRA or Retirement HRA may allow payment of premiums for Medicare or long-term care insurance; and if using a trust, accept employee/retiree after-tax contributions and accrue interest tax-free, there is still the issue that conversions of unused sick leave must be made on a mandatory basis by the employer. The employee cannot make such an election before retirement.

As state legislatures consider strategies to deal with the ever growing costs of providing retiree healthcare, the option of new legislation that would permit state and local governments to create sick leave conversion programs that would enable their retirees to use those funds to help pay for health insurance purchases on or off an insurance exchange. To give employees more control over the conversion to credits, there would have to be some changes to the employer’s  IRC 125 cafeteria plan.  The approach could provide a more sustainable bridge to Medicare for those public sector employees who retire before age 65.

We are interested in your thoughts about this topic. Please contact Bruce Davis with your comments and questions at or 419.327.4133

Published March 24, 2020

Print the article

© 2020 Findley. All Rights Reserved.